Who we are
We are people interested in having much better and much less expensive high-speed Internet for Northampton, Massachusetts. Comcast/Xfinity has an effective monopoly on high-speed Internet service in Northampton. Having thoroughly researched the issue and finding no other companies willing to provide competition, the only way to break this monopoly is to create a community-managed network to serve Northampton residents, businesses and workers. We are advocates trying to convince the City Council to create this community network.
What’s a community network?
A community network provides internet and related services to citizens as a utility. A more technical term is municipal network, but the term community network is more intuitive. It is usually overseen by a publicly accountable institution, such as a local government. The general idea is to provide these services at minimal cost with features that meet the needs of its subscribers. You can learn much more on muninetworks.org.
A number of communities in Western Massachusetts already have their own community networks, or are constructing community networks. Some recent examples include the Towns of Leverett, the City of Holyoke (through Holyoke Gas & Electric, but for businesses only), the City of Westfield, and the towns of South Hadley and Plainfield. Easthampton is considering its own community network. We think it’s time for Northampton to have one as well.
Leverett is a great example of an effective community network. Residents get 1 gigabit per second fiber access to the home for about $73/month. Leverett is mostly rural yet they enjoy much higher Internet speeds and Internet quality than Northampton residents do and for much less cost.
How much could I save with a community network?
|Comcast Plan Name||Maximum download speed||Comcast Monthly Rate (after initial discounts)||Westfield MA (Whip City Fiber) Monthly Rate||Leverett MA (Otelco) Monthly Rate||Chattanooga TN (EPB) Monthly Rate||Ammon ID Monthly Rate||South Hadley, MA||Plainfield, MA|
Note: Comcast pricing and features are as of December 1, 2020 and after any initial new subscriber discounts. Ammon, Idaho rates shows the least expensive option (multiple providers compete).
This table provides recent Comcast rates with similar community networks pricing. For example:
- Chattanooga community network subscribers pay $67.99 a month for 1 gbs service. Comcast’s 1 gbs service will cost you $110.95 a month, 38% more than Chattanooga.
- In Ammon, Idaho you can get a 1gbs service for $49.50 a month, just 45% of what Comcast charges.
In most cases, community networks offer the same upload and download speeds. This is not true with Comcast, which offers upload speeds generally at or below 15mbs (megabits per second). For some people, upload speed is as important or more important than download speeds. Note also that these are residential rates. Businesses spend considerably more, as documented here.
The city-run Ammon, Idaho network is an interesting case. The city provides the infrastructure, but multiple companies compete to provide Internet services on their network. Subscribers pay off the $3000-$3500 it costs to bring fiber to their home at $22.00 approximately per month, which is part of the fee. When paid off, or if they pay this in a lump sum, their bill is $22.00 per month lower. Competition from providers on the city network has resulted in lower costs over time. In addition, once the connection fee is paid off, new owners don’t have to pay the fee again. It conveys with the property, making the property more valuable than neighboring similar properties where the fee is not paid off.
Why compete with Comcast/Xfinity?
- The private sector is not always better, faster and cheaper, particularly when they have no competition. In particular, the private sector is useless if they won’t even provide internet services, as is true in most Western Massachusetts hill towns, because they don’t judge it to be profitable. In general, community networks provide services at least as good as those provided by commercial suppliers like Comcast and usually for substantially less cost.
- It appears that Comcast has no plans to significantly upgrade their network. We know for a fact that while Comcast does have fiber on many of the telephone polls in the city, they are not on all of them. For residential usage, optical transmission is converted to coaxial cable to the home. This means in a neighborhood, bandwidth is ultimately shared, which is why Comcast’s packages claim speeds “up to” a given speed. However, a true optical network to the home, which a community network could provide, should provide a huge amount of bandwidth and higher access speeds, both uploading and downloading. It could be architected to provide a guaranteed rate of speed. Comcast uploading speed varies, but is 5-10 megabit per second (mb)s for the maximum 60 mbs download rate.
- As a business with a monopoly, Comcast has no incentive to deliver value to its subscribers. It has plenty of incentive to deliver maximum profits to its shareholders, and it shows. You have likely experienced how they deliver this “value”: long wait times to get a service call, networks slowdowns (particularly during peak usage) and download rates frequently well below the “up to” rate you are charged.
- With the FCC’s relaxation of net neutrality rules, since June 2018 Comcast is free to limit content, slow or stop the delivery of content it does not want to serve, or speed up the delivery of content from providers that purchase this quality of service. They are also free to sell information about your Internet usage to other entities including commercial interests and the government. It can also raise rates as it chooses with no oversight or regulation. It’s not considered a public utility, like gas or electricity. With virtually no competition, there is no reason not to.
What about Verizon FiOS?
Verizon FiOS is available in a few very limited neighborhoods in Northampton. Verizon does not plan to expand this service city-wide to compete with Comcast for high-speed internet services. They see their opportunity for profits primarily in the wireless arena. If they offered FiOS across Northampton they would incur considerable costs and because they would be competing with Comcast they would probably have to offer lower rates. This is apparently judged not profitable enough for them. No other private sector entities have expressed interest in providing competitive high-speed internet services. Which leaves businesses and residents of Northampton with Comcast or to build our own better, less expensive citizen-centric network.
What about 5G?
Cellular networks are beginning to test 5G networks. These networks promise much faster mobile connectivity, comparable to what you get at home. In addition, you could use these networks with laptop and desktop computers at home, if you are within range. Speeds of 100mbs (megabits per second) are possible.
Some important things to note about 5G:
- It is not currently available in Northampton and only exists in a few test markets. When deployed, it will likely be deployed in dense, urban areas first. Northampton is many years away, at best, from having 5G as an option.
- When available, you will need devices that can use 5G technology.
- Since it uses cellular frequencies and the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) auctions off these frequencies to commercial companies for the highest bid, these services will probably be available only from commercial companies. So when deployed you will have to use a cellular service like Verizon, AT&T and T-Mobile, or some company which resells their frequencies. The City of Northampton could probably not create its own 5G network, at least not without leasing spectra from a cellular provider, so it’s hard to see how a community network could provide affordable 5G service, if it can deploy it at all.
- While 5G would introduce real high-speed competition in Northampton, it would likely be pricey service, particularly if providers do as they generally do now and charge by the bandwidth you use.
- Since 5G cannot provide speeds greater than 100mbs to a single device, it’s significantly slower than most community networks where 100mbs is something of a minimum speed. Most community networks provide 1gbs: ten times as much bandwidth per second.
- The time it takes to send and receive signals (latency) is considerably longer than it would be with a fiber-optic network.
- Cellular frequencies use shared bandwidth, so lots of simultaneous use could result in slower speeds. In a properly managed fiber optic network, bandwidth should be at a consistent speed.
- Technologies change. 5G will be used for a while, to eventually be replaced by 6G, 7G etc. Fiber though is effectively forever, and how it works won’t change.
- The range for 5G networks is relatively limited and some spectra are affected by structures through which the signal must penetrate. More rural parts of Northampton would not be able to use 5G.
What are the advantages of a Northampton community network?
- Lower prices. It’s a rare community network that cannot offer both higher speeds and lower prices than commercial Internet Service Providers (ISPs) like Comcast. Both businesses and residents would benefit from reduced communications costs. These costs could be recaptured for more productive uses. It’s not unrealistic to expect you would save a third or more with a community network. Considering how vital affordable internet access is to people today, particularly those with modest or low incomes, a community network would make communication costs more certain and affordable with less likelihood of large cost fluctuations.
- True fiber to the home. Potentially such a network could offer true Fiber to the Home (FTTH) and to Northampton businesses, the highest speed available. This would offer a quantum leap in available bandwidth and potential network speeds of 1gbps (gigabits per second) or higher, dramatically reducing downloading and uploading times. Fiber networks are also extremely reliable as they are not subject to electromagnetic interference.
- Choice. Effectively, Comcast has no competition for high-speed internet, which means customers likely pay more for their services than they would with competition and get a poorer quality of service too.
- True net neutrality. Comcast is opposed to net neutrality, although it claims it has no plans to block or rate-limit sites at this time. A community network would probably require net neutrality, especially if it is governed by its citizens.
- Data as a utility. What do we mean by a utility? We mean that we believe that the Internet is no longer optional. Robust and high-speed Internet today is as vital as water, sewage, electricity and gas. People of modest means in particular need internet access at affordable rates. As such, it should be treated as a utility, overseen by elected officials accountable to the citizens, and provided as a robust service at minimal cost. The Internet should be tuned to meet the needs of its users, not Comcast’s shareholders.
- Decoupling data access from data services. We believe there is a great advantage from decoupling data access from data services. While some users may like Comcast’s Double and Triple Play offerings, providing Internet as a neutral service allows you to choose any provider for services like streaming movies and live content and telephony. A net-neutral network would ensure that no content provider has an advantage, evening the playing field, increasing competition and likely reducing costs too. Even with a community network, you could get Cable TV from Comcast as a separate service. Please note that a community network could provide internet telephone service too, as some communities like Leverett and Westfield do. Currently Comcast has the exclusive license to provide cable TV services within Northampton. When the current contract ends however, if a community network is in place, this could be something a community network could provide too.
- Citizen oversight. Companies like Comcast are responsible to shareholders. Customers are seen as profit centers. A community network is accountable to its customers and to a local governing board that oversees it.
- Flexibility. A community network has the ability to be more agile, offering tailored services to meet local needs. For example, Comcast’s upload speeds are quite slow. This is because of their architecture and the technology that they are using. A community network on a true fiber-optic network could offer much more flexible upload/download packages. With Comcast, it’s very hard to get upload speeds greater than 10mbps. This makes things like sharing videos on Facebook or Instagram slow and tedious.
- Future growth. For a community to thrive in the future, a reliable high-speed network is practically a requirement. A city that understands this by providing the data services its citizens need is likely to prosper in the future, attracting new businesses and potentially more tax revenues. Much of this growth would likely be “clean” growth too.
- Consistent bandwidth. Perhaps you may have noticed that Comcast’s network often slows in the evening. This is because a lot of people stream services like Netflix in the evening. Since the bandwidth is shared, if there is congestion on the network, the overall experience degrades for everyone on the same shared coaxial circuit. Unsurprisingly, Comcast markets its packages promoting rates “up to” a given limit. A community network could be engineered to deliver bandwidth at a consistent rate.
- Consistent delivery. End-to-end fiber networks are extremely reliable. They are not susceptible to electromagnetic radiation like most cables. They are less likely to experience operational issues than coaxial cable based systems.
Can I get Cable TV on a Northampton community network?
If you mean, can you get live TV like CNN or ESPN then yes, if you subscribe to a streaming service that offers these sorts of live channels.
For example, DirecTV Now and YouTube TV provide both CNN and ESPN live streams. Just as Cable TV is not provided free by Comcast if you buy their Internet service, channels like ESPN streamed over the web are not free either. You would be free to choose whatever services you want to pay for to get the channels you want over the Internet.
Potentially a community network could bundle popular channels into packages you could subscribe to. Currently the City has an agreement with Comcast that allows only it to provide “cable TV” services to Northampton residences. So it might not be possible to offer this as a network service until the Comcast contract expires in 2026. But as the Internet is platform neutral, there would be nothing to stop you from subscribing the streaming services that offer content similar to cable TV.
Many local TV stations can be viewed for free by connecting your TV to a high-definition antenna. Antennas on Mount Tom come in very clearly, as do most content served from Springfield. More expensive antennas can often bring in content from stations even further away. You can get an idea of station signal strength in Northampton from this site.
In reality, cable TV is dying. Comcast knows this. With time, it is likely that all TV stations will stream their content for free over the Internet. Streaming makes it easier to be choosier, allowing you to pay for the content you want as opposed to paying for hundreds of channels you will never use.
Also bear in mind that the definition of cable TV means that the content comes over coaxial cable. Delivering content via coaxial cable is so 20th century and involves sharing bandwidth with your neighbors. High-speed fiber to the home is 21st century and is usually engineered to deliver consistent service over optical fibers.
Where are you going?
We are making steady progress. A municipal broadband survey is currently underway. Residential surveys (in both English and Spanish) as well as a business survey are linked on the City’s municipal broadband page. Surveys will be collected through April 21, 2021. The survey is being run by Design Nine.
If the survey shows sufficient support to build a network, Design Nine would then be authorized to begin a study of the costs and issues to create and maintain a city-managed community network.
What would it take to create a community network in Northampton?
Massachusetts cities and towns can create a “Municipal Light Plant” (MLP) to act as a vehicle for creating a community network.
On June 5, 2020 the Northampton City Council voted unanimously to create a municipal light plant (MLP) for the city. Another vote is required by a two-thirds majority after July 1, 2020 and if approved a second time, the MLP would have to also be approved by city voters. Northampton Mayor David Narkewicz has indicated that he will ask the City Council to vote again before the end of the 2021 fiscal year, which ends June 30, 2021.
To actually authorize construction, two more steps would be needed:
- Northampton voters would have to approve the creation of a city municipal light plant. This will likely be on the city’s ballot in November 2021.
- The city council would have to authorize its construction and one or more funding mechanisms, such as through the issuance of a municipal bond.
How would a community network be financed?
That would be up to the City Council. It could in theory pay for a network out of pocket but such an endeavor would probably exceed any Rainy Day Fund the city has. It’s possible that some portion of the network could be financed by federal or state grants.
In our discussions with Mayor Narkewicz, he said that if a community network is built, it should be self sustaining, so it would have no net impact on the city’s budget. If approved, most likely funds would come from the sale of municipal bonds or as part of a general override approved by voters. Also most likely, subscribers to the community network would pay off the municipal bond by subscribing to it, similar to how users in the city’s E.J. Gare parking garage pay to park, and their charges are used to pay off municipal bonds. Ultimately though if there are not enough subscribers to the network, the City is liable for paying back the bond. Hence, it makes no sense to start a community network without a thorough study of its likely costs and likely subscription rate by city residents and businesses. Based on those we have talked to, you need at least a 30% subscription rate for a community network to be self financing. We think that is easily achievable.
How much would a community network cost?
At this point we can only ballpark the cost. Design Nine’s engineering study will give a more detailed estimate.
We did speak with the general manager of Whip City Fiber in Westfield. He believes that it would be around $10M – $15M dollars, but is likelier to be closer to $10M. A local representative of Nokia told us he thought the final could would be less than $10M. It’s not a small outlay, obviously. The proposed City budget for fiscal year 2019 is $112M.
There are all sorts of factors that can affect the cost of the network. One of the oddest ones has to do with telephone poles. Poles that have no more room on them would need to have a taller poles placed if community network cables had to go on them, and that gets very expensive. We’ve looked around and so far haven’t seen many situations where the poles are at capacity. Cables on telephone poles must be one feet apart. A fiber network though contains light so it does not leak any electromagnetic radiation. Conceptually then it should not make a difference, but regulations might require the separation anyhow.
Cables could also be strung or buried on land the city owns, such as bike paths and parks.
It’s possible that the community network could use a free right of way granted to the City for its network. This will likely be studied to see if it is legal. If it is, not having to pay to rent pole space could substantially reduce costs.
How hard is it to create a community network?
There are some prominent failures of communities creating these sorts of networks. Locally, Greenfield’s line-of-site wireless network seems to have been canned, and the town is now working on creating a proper municipal network. Greenfield though is the exception, and so far all other local municipal networks studied have been successful, or appear likely to be successful when fully deployed.
The good news is that the technology is commoditized and standardized, so it’s hardly a mystery. There are many competent engineering firms that can install and manage community networks, or the city could do it in-house. Based on our research, most failures are a result of going for inexpensive solutions, using unproven vendors or basic management screw ups. Since Northampton is a city it has more resources than towns, as well as a Chief Information Officer. It’s unlikely it would be done sloppily.
How can I get involved?
Join our mailing list. Sign our petition. Also follow us on Facebook, Twitter and show up at our community events that you will find in the sidebar.
Last updated March 19, 2021